Internet of Things (IoT)

Angui Clavijo Gutiérrez
3 min readAug 22, 2021

Internet of Things (IoT) it is a network of physical objects and electronic components incorporated into its architecture, to detect interactions with the outside as well as to communicate with each other.

The IoT allows users to achieve automation, deeper analysis for it uses existing technology for network arrest and robotics.

Currently more than 9 billion physical objects with IoT are connected to the internet.


  • AI: Makes any object “smart” improving aspects of life, with the power of:
    - Collecting data
    - Artificial intelligence algorithms
    - The networks
    For example, that your refrigerator detects when the milk is running low and then place an order in your favorite store
  • Connectivity: New enabling technologies for networking, and specifically IoT networking, mean networks are no longer exclusively tied to major providers. Networks can exist on a much smaller and cheaper scale while still being practical. IoT creates these small networks between its system devices.
  • Sensors: They are devices that convert physical parameters such as: temperature, movement, humidity to electrical signals. These are must-haves of IoT.
    For example the monitoring of a farm where it has 4 crops that need water and then pour the same or satisfy the need of the crop.
    1. The temperature sensor connected with plant pot detects the low temperature.
    2. Then it triggers the microprocessor platforms such as Raspberry-Pi, Arduino boards.
    3. It receives the sensor signals through internet pathways such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth.
    4. Then it notifies the user and the motion sensor connected to the tap which turns on to pour it.


IoT is currently found in four different popular domains:

1) Manufacturing/Industrial business — 40.2%
2) Healthcare — 30.3%
3) Security — 7.7%
4) Retail — 8.3%

Modern Applications:

  • Smart Grids and energy saving
  • Smart cities
  • Smart homes
  • Healthcare
  • Earthquake detection
  • Radiation detection/hazardous gas detection
  • Smartphone detection
  • Water flow monitoring
  • Traffic monitoring
  • Wearables

Software Platforms for IoT:

Each device is an opportunity for attackers, the risks are data transfer, access to devices, devices that malfunction also devices always on or always connected.
The main challenge in security are the limitations associated with the production of devices at low cost and the increasing number of devices that creates more opportunities.
Most technical security concerns are similar to those of conventional servers, workstations, and smartphones. [240] These concerns include the use of weak authentication, forgetting to change the default credentials, unencrypted messages sent between devices, SQL injections, man-in-the-middle attacks, and mishandling of security updates.

Philip N. Howard, professor and author, writes that the Internet of Things offers immense potential to empower citizens, make government transparent, and expand access to information. Howard cautions that the threats to privacy are enormous, as is the potential for social control and political manipulation.
Concerns about privacy have led to consideration of the possibility that big data infrastructures, such as the Internet of Things and data mining, are inherently incompatible with privacy.
The main challenges of further digitization in the water, transport or energy sector are related to privacy and cybersecurity, which require an adequate response from both research and policy makers